Men referred to as trees
Man is periphrased in tree-metaphors, as we have written before; he is called Rowan, or Tester, of Weapons, or of Combats, of Expeditions and of Deeds, of Ships, and of all that which he wields and tests; thus sang Úlfr Uggason:
But the flashing-eyed stiff Edge-Rope
Of the Earth stared past the gunwale
At the Rowan-Tree of the people
Of Stone, the Giant-Tester.
Tree and Beam, as Kormákr sang:
The Beam of the murdering Sword-Twig
Is taller than are many
In the Din of Darts; the sword wins.
The land for dauntless Sigurdr.
Grove, as sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald:
The Mighty Grove and Faithful
Of the Shield-Murderer, budded
With hair, stands in the Eastlands
Safe with Ullr's Ash-Warriors.
Here he is also called Ash.
Box, as Arnórr sang:
The Box of Ships bade the Rygir
Bring the shields together
At early dusk; through the spear-rain
Of strife-clouds held the autumn night.
Ash, as Refr sang:
The Strife-Lord, gracious Giver,
Sought the Maid's bed gold-sprinkled;
The Ash of Odin's War-Sleet
Won the estate of manhood.
Maple, as here:
Hail, Maple of the Ice-Lumps
Of the Hand!' So spake the Birnie.
Tree, as Refr sang:
Since I have appointed
To proffer Odin's Breast-Sea,
The War-God's Verse, to Thorsteinn;
The Tree of Swords so wills it.
Staff, as Óttarr sang:
Thou, fierce War-Staff, maintainedst
Maugre two kings, thy borders
With heroes' kin, where the ravens
Starved not; keen-hearted art thou.
Thorn, as Arnórr sang:
He gathered, the young Wealth-Thorn,
Many great heaps of corpses
For the eagles, and his henchmen
Guided and helped the hero.